Representative Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) introduced a bill to the House of Representatives that would limit the number of overdraft fees a bank can charge a customer.  The number would be one per month and six per year. 
Lynn A. David in an article for provided the banker's point of view to the bill.

"This is 2013. There has never been a time in our history when consumers have had such easy access to their financial position at their financial institution.  Account information can be accessed via telephones, ATMs, computers and other handheld devices. With the information at their fingertips, consumers know whether they can use their debit card to pay for lunch at their favorite restaurant."

"… most financial institutions will cover their shortages by paying the overdrafts. This permits consumers to purchase food, pay bills and maintain a respectable credit rating. Financial institutions write off millions of dollars a year in charged off checking accounts to help customers cover their daily needs.  They deserve to be compensated for this service."

The point of all this is that some people use their checking accounts like a short term loan.  David is essentially saying that if you limit the fees, the banks will be forced to decline the bank account.  In essence, that means if someone is paying for groceries, rent, gas and electric, the payment for those products and services will be declined.

It's a fine line---choosing between consumer protection and the necessity that banks and lending institutions make money (because they have to)---but this bill, albeit good intentioned, may not be THE right bill.